By the Constitution of Yugoslavia and the Constitution of Kosova, approved in 1974, the autonomy of Kosova was advanced to a higher degree of sovereignty and Kosova became one of eight constituent subjects of Yugoslav Federation. Serbia was not satisfied with this, and in 1976 it compiled the Blue Book', by which it intended to reduce the autonomy of Kosova drastically.
After the mass demonstrations of the Albanians in 1981, a significant polarisation between the Albanians of Kosova and the unitary and chauvinist forces of Serbia began. The former ones requested advancement of their statehood, and the latter ones destruction of the autonomy of Kosova.
Serbia carried out the destruction of the autonomy of Kosova step by step. It began it by establishing the state of emergency and sending the police and army to subjugate and occupy Kosova in 1981. Serbia took the demonstrations as a pretext to take over the competencies from the state organs in Kosova. The 13th Congress of the Yugoslav League of Communists (YLC) in 1986, passed the Resolution on Constitutional Changes in the Republic of Serbia', by which destroying the autonomy of Kosova was intended. The memorandum of the ASAS, compiled on nationalistic basis, gave an instigation to Serbian plan for destruction of the autonomy that ought to be accomplished by Serbian state bodies.1 In this spirit was developed the public discussion on the amendments of Serbian Constitution.
It was the first phase of destruction of the autonomy of Kosova, and later by special measures Serbia abrogated violently all the governmental bodies of Kosova. In this way the autonomy of Kosova was destroyed completely.
The Albanian people, not accepting the subjugated position and the destruction of the autonomy of Kosova, began to organise themselves. The delegates of the Assembly of Kosova, after many endeavours and handicaps made by Serbia, passed the Declaration of the Independence of Kosova (2 July, 1990). The Assembly of Kosova, purported by the Albanian population, approved the Constitution of the Republic of Kosova at Kaanik, on 7 September, 1990.
Out of what was said here, it results that they destroyed the autonomy of Kosova in order the subjugate the population of Kosova and force it to emigrate.
2. Approval of Serbian Acts and Laws as a Means for Acceleration of Emigration
Serbia and Montenegro made their efforts in different ways to contest the elements of sovereignty of Kosova, that were determined by the Constitution of Kosova and the Constitution of SFR Yugoslavia in 1974. Due to this they requested from the other republics of Federation to support them and they received their agreement to reduce the autonomy of Kosova. In this way they opened the way to destroy completely the autonomy by approving Serbian acts and laws, that were used to exert Serbian police and military violence. These measures influenced the acceleration of emigration of the Albanians from Kosova and their ethnic territories. The consequences were destructive not only for the constitutional position of Kosova, but also for the economy, health, education, science, culture, mass media,2 as well as the life of the Albanians in general. They accelerated particular emigration of the Albanians. Serbia requested from Yugoslavia to proclaim state of emergency in Kosova, and it did so. These measures created real bases for exertion of violence upon the Albanians. Instead of state bodies, a total supervision of Serbian police and military was established.
The discussions on the changes of the Constitution of Serbia began with amendments. The population of Kosova did not accept the proposals of Serbia. In public discussion organised in Kosova, the absolute majority of meetings and participants declared themselves in favour of maintenance of the autonomy and its advancing. Facing this, Serbia perpetrated violence on the delegates of the Assembly of Kosova. At the time of voting the amendments, the building of the Assembly of Kosova was surrounded by tanks, military and police, and members of the secret police were present in the hall too. In conditions of state of emergency, without the required quorum, without numbering the votes, and by voting of persons that were found in the hall but were not delegates, the then president of the Assembly of Kosova who was a Serb, on 23 March, 1989, proclaimed the approval of the constitutional amendments, and in addition to them some amendments that had not been in public discussion. The Assembly of Serbia approved amendments 9-49 to the Constitution of Serbia on 28 March, 1989. While Serbia was celebrating its victory, the police was killing Albanian demonstrators in Kosova that were protesting throughout Kosova.
The delegates of the Assembly of Kosova approved the Declaration of the Independence of Kosova on 2 July, 1990, that preceded to the Constitution of the Republic of Kosova, approved on 7 September, 1990 at Kaanik. By these acts a new period in the history of struggles for independence of the Albanian people in Kosova began.
Serbia has made its efforts to prevent the formation of the state of Kosova by extraordinary measures, namely, by a state of emergency.
Serbia approved the law on the action of Republican bodies in special circumstances in Kosova, on 26 June, 1990, by which was destroyed the structure for directing the institutions of social and economic activities. Almost 300 Albanians directors were discharged by compulsory imposing measures.3 It was a hard attack against the Albanian people.
Serbia passed the law on abrogation of the activity of the Assembly of Kosova and its government on 5 July, 1990. By that law Kosova was deprived of legislative and executive power, that presented a classic occupation and it has continued to the present day.
Serbia passed the law on labour relations in special circumstances in Kosova, on 26 July, 1990, which is an act of national discrimination of the Albanians. By that law 135,000 Albanian workers were expelled from their jobs, and so their material base became very difficult to keep their families, the whole activity in the Albanian language was banned: education, culture, science and mass media. Then followed stoppage of financial support of institutions of national character, apart from others, of the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosova.
Serbia approved the Constitution of Serbia on 27 September, 1990. This act reduced the autonomy of Kosova still more, and the Albanian people did not take part in its approval. By that Constitution Kosova is called Kosova and Metohia'. The Albanians consider that as a constitution of Serbian occupier.
Serbia passed the law on stoppage of activity of the Presidency of Kosova on 18 March, 1991, that was an act by which the autonomous status of Kosova was denied.
Serbia discharged the member from Kosova in the Presidency of Yugoslavia and chose another one instead. The election of that member was decided by the Assembly of Serbia and not the Parliament of Kosova, and so he was not the representative of Kosova.
After the abrogation of the government bodies of Kosova, the governmental organs of communes to local communities were abrogated as well. Except this, all the institutions on Kosova level and in its communes lost their competencies. Serbia formed new communes and divided Kosova into districts. Some parts of Kosova have been linked to districts outside Kosova. On the other hand, the courts of Kosova were abrogated and courts of Serbia have been installed in Kosova. The prisons have became institutions under Serbia as well. Changes have been made in the names of cities, villages, streets, quarters and settlements; all of them have taken Serbian names. Serbia has passed above 200 laws that are valid in Kosova as well. Besides laws, many other acts have been approved that are valid in Kosova only. On all the exit roads from Kosova police stations have been placed, even on those going to Serbia.
All of these devices have their basic intention to accelerate the expulsion of the Albanians from their ethnic land. The call of Albanian youngsters to draft boards of Serbian military has influenced greatly their exodus. All of these acts, laws and measures of violence against the Albanians in Kosova are unprecedented in Europe now at the end of twentieth century and influence the exodus of the Albanians from Kosova and other ethnic regions of the Albanians.
3. Closing of Institutions of Education, Science, Culture and Health
After the abrogation of the autonomy ((1989) and occupation of Kosova (1990) violence against the Albanians was intensified by the Serbian regime. Serbia closed institutions, dismissed workers from their jobs, moved the Albanians from their apartments, isolated, imprisoned and killed them without giving any responsibility and without any legal basis.4 Education of the Albanian population has always caused pains to Serbia.
In March 1990, Serbia organised poisoning of more than 7,000 Albanian school children and other children of the pre-school age.
In 1991 it closed all middle schools (65) and a number of elementary schools and stopped financing education in the Albanian language, from kindergartens to university. In this way, about 25,000 teachers remained without any pay.5 The Assembly of Serbia imposed emergency measures to Prishtina University, creating in this way the possibility for dismissal of more than 1000 Albanian university professor and assistants from work. In October 1991, it usurped all the room-space of faculties, higher schools, university students hostels and secondary school pupils hostels. It expelled from their jobs all the Albanian teaching and administration personnel.5
The Serbian occupying regime imposed emergency measures at Kosova Institute of History in 1990, and closed it up in 1992. At the same time were closed the INKOS' (Kosova Institute of Economy), Mining Institute in Mitrovica, Institute of Albanology, etc.
In July 1992, the Serbian government closed the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosova, that was a hard attack to the Albanian science and culture and raised a great indignation in Kosova. It had assisted the development of scientific and social mind and had been engaged in social trends, giving justification and scientific support to the actual problems in Kosova, particularly in the development of democratic relationships and self-determination. It had influenced profoundly the internationalisation of the question of Kosova.6
The destruction of health institutions was also carried out in unticonstitutional and illegal way. The clinics of the Medical School in Albanian were closed. The Albanian personnel (doctors, nurses and others) was expelled from most of health institutions. Serbia brought Serbian doctors, nurses etc. instead of Albanian ones, even though without professional experience. This was done with strategic intentions of re-colonisation of Kosova.
Institutions of culture in Kosova experienced the same fate as those of education and health. In 11 institutions of national level, the activity of presentation of cultural values in Albanian was forbidden. At the same time, activity was banned in above 110 objects and institutions of culture (with space-room amounting to 125,000 m2), then it was banned to more than 420 societies, associations, artistic and cultural groups. Organisation of more than 70 manifestations, reviews, festivals, fairs, expositions and other traditional meetings that had been active in Kosova, was banned.
Publishing activity has, in fact, been stopped since 1990. Periodicals, reviews, newspapers, and even the sole daily newspaper in the Albanian language in Yugoslavia, Rilindja', were forbidden to be published. The name of the Publishing House Rilindja' was changed into Panorama', and the printing house is called Gracanica'. The school texts publishing house was closed. In 1991, the whole troop of Ballet Ensemble that had acted at the National Theatre of Kosova was dismissed, and the work at regional theatres was banned, such as in Prizren, Peja, Gjilan, Mitrovica, Gjakova, etc. Then the Institution of producing, distributing and performing films, Kosovafilm', was closed; also the work of Kosova troupe of folk songs and dances, Shota', and the Musician Association Collegium Cantorum' was banned.
Prishtina Radio-television was closed, and 1,300 Albanians workers in it were left jobless.7 The National and University Library of Kosova was closed for the Albanians, as well as 207 national libraries throughout Kosova, with a fund of books of 1,272,000 units, and in addition 103 special libraries were closed. In the Archives of Kosova, the Albanian experts were expelled from their jobs after imposed measures were applied, and a part of documentation was plundered and sent to Belgrade.
All of these measures can serve as a testimony of Serbian violence and terror exerted on the Albanian population and Albanian national institutions of education, culture, science, health and mass media, perpetrating real culturocide on the Albanian being.
4. Mass Exodus - a Consequence of Serbian Repression and Terror
Depending on historical circumstances, the Albanians have been forced to emigrate from their ethnic land occupied by Yugoslavia. The intensity of emigration resulted from state repression. Since 1981, especially after 1990, violence and terror have increased. In fact, that was a period of the wild, totalitarian military-police regime, and the unprotected population suffered harshly.8 Serbian policy isolated Kosova and its citizens totally. The borders on Albania and Macedonia have actually been closed to the Albanians.
Individual and collective rights of the Albanians in Kosova have been violated systematically. Since 1981 onwards, almost half of the Albanian population has passed through police treatment in various forms. In the last two years, especially in 1994, a significant increase of violation of human and national rights and liberties was evidenced. This can be proved by cases of killing and ill-treating in different forms by the Serbian regime.
Below is presented a table of the cases evidenced by the Kosova Council of Human Rights and Liberties (KCHRL), for the period 1993, 1994 and six months in 1995.
The KCHRL, with its seat in Prishtina, registered 19,000 heavy cases of violation of human rights and liberties in 1994. It must be emphasised that many cases could not have been evidenced. The last year (1995) shows a significant acceleration of Serbian repression.
Taking the members of family as pledge for a wanted person has become very frequent. The member of the family is held as a pledge until the wanted person presents himself at the police.
Serbia implements another form of repression in order to bring the Albanian population to poverty.
The financial police organises plundering of Albanian citizens, craftsmen and traders in all the settlements of Kosova.
Type of violation 1993 1994 1995
1. Killing by fire arms 11 11 5
2. Killing by police torture 4 6 3
3. Suicide as a result of torture - 1 2
4. Persons harshly tortured - 11 -
5. Physical ill-treatment 1721 2157
of them: women - 22
children - 28
6. Raids of houses 1994 2157
7. Ill-treatment under pretext of searching for arms 3396 6394
8. Arbitrary imprisonment 2305 2963
of them: women - 7
children - 3
9. Informative talks 849 2729
10. Punishment with political motives - 90
11. Persons in temporary arrest - 490
12. Imprisonment or punishment due to desertion
or refusal to military service - 685
13. Imprisonment of a family member instead of the required persons: - 62
women - 10
children - 5
14. Forceful eviction out of the flat 53 54
15. Confiscation of passports9 - 127
Poverty that has prevailed over the whole population of Kosova makes life harder and more difficult. Mass unemployment has created poverty of all the classes of population. Expulsion of the Albanians from their jobs has not come to its end.
The charitable and humanitarian organisation Mother Teresa' was asked for aid by 43,320 families in 1992, 45,835 ones in 1993, and 57,353 ones in 1994. Serbian regime has banned work to humanitarian organisations as well.10
After 1990, the Serbian regime intensified its violence, and particularly in educational system in the Albanian language. The Serbian police has continuously intervened in the educational process and ill-treated Albanian teachers before their students, and also the parents and students themselves.
The Serbian regime has undertaken all these measures on purpose to create a feeling of uncertainty and to cause the process of emigration of the Albanians from Kosova and re-colonisation of it by Serbs.
Political, psychological and economic pressure that has been exerted through state terror, is exerted by a plan and programme and all possible mechanisms of violence. Youngsters, men, women with their children, pupils, students, workers of different professions, intellectuals, and even academicians have emigrated.11 The Albanians have been forced to emigrate for different motives: Albanian soldiers that fled from the Yugoslav front of war, other youngsters that did not accept being recruited in the Serbian military, citizens and political activists that were wanted and persecuted by the Serbian police, and others.12
As a consequence of repression exerted by the Serbian police, 45,972 school children and 1,123 teachers emigrated from Kosova in 1993, and 50,000 school children and above 2,000 teachers of primary and secondary schools, and more than 60 university professors emigrated in 1994. Desertion of Albanian young men (soldiers) from the so-called former Yugoslav National Army (YNA), and later from the Serbian-Montenegrin military, since the beginning of armed conflicts in Yugoslavia was in mass. According to the evidence of Belgrade, about 18,000 Albanian soldiers were in the army in 1991. It is supposed that in 1992, when YNA was decomposed and the Serbian-Montenegrin army was formed, around 30,000 Albanian soldiers of Kosova deserted the army. In the later years, 1993-1995, Albanian young men did not reply to military obligation. According to some calculations, some 80,000 young men seem to have fled from Kosova, not wanting to serve in Serbian army.
All of this said above confirms that the consequences of the Albanian exodus are overwhelming. One could distinguish among them:
a) the demographic aspect, which indicates that disproportion of age and sex of the population is observed in the space of emigration. Bearing in mind that the Albanian population is quite young (50% is under 20 years old), only old population, women and children, has remained in Kosova. In this way, the number of marriages and birth-rate have been reduced; b) the economic aspect, in the absence of young population, the contingent of population capable for labour and labour force have been reduced, the economic structure and the structure of people's qualification have changed, the economic activity and standard of living have been decreased; c) the psychological aspect, special problems in the psychological life of emigrants and their families, and many other problem have occurred.14
By its anti-Albanian position, Serbia refuses the return of the Albanians to Kosova, such as to: a) those who have requested asylum; b) those who do not possess a certificate for their passport identity; c) those that do not have a pass issued by Yugoslav representatives; d) those who posses passports issued in other republics in former Yugoslavia now independent states (Croatia, Bosnia, etc.).15 Recently, Belgrade had conditioned the return of Albanian refugees by material compensation.
All of this indicates clearly that the general situation in Kosova has become very difficult in all the spheres of life in the recent years. The invading regime has deprived the Albanians of their elementary rights. Accordingly, silent ethnic cleansing by special programming has taken place in Kosova.
5. Serbian-Montenegrin Short-term and Long-term Intentions of Resettling Albanians
The aim of the Serbs and Montenegrins has been to occupy the land of the Illyrians-Albanians from north to south since they colonised a part of the Balkan Peninsula. They have carried out ethnic cleansing wherever they happened to live. The South Slavs, on the whole, and Serbs in particular, accepted all the conditions that the Byzantine Empire imposed them and only requested permission to colonise the Balkans. In twelfth century, when a tribal state was formed known by the name Ras, then Zeta, the Serbs began to populate the land of the Albanians in an organised way. The Serbian ruler, Tzar Dusan, expanded his state on the else's land and by invading the land of the Albanians and Greeks. Even after Ottomans occupied the Balkans, The Serbs, despite their being under the Ottoman Empire, received the blessings of the Orthodox Church and Russia and organised two uprisings in the beginning of nineteenth century and won their local autonomy. Since that time, the Serbian Orthodox Church and intellectuals and leaders have intended to form their state on the land that once Tzar Dusan invaded. This means that they had to invade the land of the Albanians, that was under the Ottoman Empire. Due to this intention, national projects and programmes were compiled, determining the strategy and tactics. The Balkans was ruled by two empires: Ottoman and Austrian. But the vital interests of Russia, England and France, and later of Germany, were intertwined here. In these circumstances, Nacertanija was compiled by Ilija Garaanin, in 1844. Nacertanija, as a Serbian national programme, had genocidal character and had to be perpetrated upon the Albanians, as it anticipated the invasion of their land and their ethnic cleansing. In shortage of immediate force, the project determined: Serbia should make its utmost efforts to take out stone by stone from the building of the Turkish state and so take whatever possible from that good material... and so be able to erect a new Serbian state....16 This project was based on a long-term programme of action and occupation of the land of ethnic Albanians. The same intention continued to be carried out also by the New Programme of Mihailo Obrenovic in 1862, which, parallel to liberation of the Balkans from the Ottoman Empire, anticipated the emigration of the Albanians from here and access of Serbia to the sea. The project planned that the Albanians should be expatriated bit by bit, and their land be occupied by military forces. This, in fact, happened on the eve of the Congress of Berlin, when Serbia occupied Ni, Prokuplje, Toplica, Kursumlia, Jablanica, Leskovac and Vranje, and resettled the Albanian population forcefully from those territories. In the same period, Montenegro became expanded, occupying new regions of the Albanians and forcing them to emigrate.
During the Balkan Wars, the Serbs and Montenegrins invaded the largest part of Albanian land, but after the proclamation of the independence of Albania, they withdrew from those regions, and have held another part of it occupied ever since (Kosova, Western Macedonia, Plava, Gucia, Great Malsia, Kraja, Tivar and Ulqin). The majority of Albanian population has forcefully emigrated from all these territories.
Summarising: Serbian and Montenegrin long-term intentions towards the Albanians and their territory can be divided into two periods: First, their intentions until the independence of Albania (1912), and second, after the establishment of the Albanian state to the present day.
In the first period they had the intention:
- to ban the establishment of an Albanian independent state;
- to occupy Albanian territories;
- to force the Albanians to emigrate from their ethnic land;
- to colonise the land of ethnic Albanians by Serbs and Montenegrins;
- to convert the Muslim and Catholic Albanians into the Orthodox religion and assimilate them;
- to partition Albania between Serbia and Greece, giving the latter a part in the south;
In the second period their intentions have been:
- to occupy and partition Albania among Serbia, Montenegro and Greece, and later with Italy as well.
- to isolate the Albanian state from western states in order that it should remain under the Yugoslav dependency;
- to turn Albanian forces as weak as possible, so that it could not defend itself in cases of its future subjugation by Yugoslavia;
- to make it possible for the communist ideology to rule and become disseminated in Albania, and it should become the sphere of interests of Yugoslavia and Russia;
- to isolate Albania and the Albanians as much as possible politically, economically, diplomatically.
These have been permanent intentions of Serbia and Montenegro towards Albania and the Albanians. They have aspired that the Albanians should be left without real friends and separated from Europe, with which they had been linked for centuries.
6. Re-colonisation of Kosova - Erection of Kibbutzes on Albanians' Land 1990-1995
Serbia and Montenegro aimed at changing the structure of ethnic population of Kosova by means of its re-colonisation by Serbs and Montenegrins. The self-called Yugoslav Federation as well the Serbian occupying bodies in the communes in Kosova have passed different legal acts by which they have defined the manner, form, and space for settlement of Serbian colonists in the property of the Albanians. On purposes of accelerated colonisation, the Serbian regime has built kibbutzes on the land of the Albanians. During the last five years, 500 laws, drafts, orders, regulations and other acts dealing with re-colonisation have been approved. These laws, decrees and acts of genocidal character confirm that the authorities of this state not yet recognised by the world, competed with those who would offer more funds and facilities to colonise Kosova forcefully, although it is a region with the densest population in Europe.
Starting in 1990, the self-called Federal Republic of Yugoslavia' (FRY), except for the YU-programme, passed some seven more legal acts, that are chiefly laws and programmes on providing flats for officials and for coming of all those who like to live in Kosova'. In three such acts solely, that cover the period 1989-1993, was planned erection of 2,000 flats with a surface of 115,272 m2 and 711 sites in addition for building individual houses, on a surface of 284,400 m2, that amounted to above 7,1 million DEM. There were also provided 10,2 million DEM for individual loans for construction. Later on followed The Decree on the way and conditions for renting and using flats', then The Decision on pointing the federal body of administration that would carry out the right and duties of the investor'. Serbia also passed The Law on providing flats', which anticipates the erection of 1,564 flats with a surface of 88,773 m2, and 91.1 million DEM were planned for it.
FRY passed a law in 1995 on colonisation of 100,000 Serbs and Montenegrins in Kosova. The law defines that sites for houses, erected houses, fertile land, flats and large financial funds would be provided gratis for Serbian colonists.
The Serbian regime has brought to Kosova many Serbian families from Croatia and Bosnia, and even from Serbia itself as colonists . They have been settled in primary and secondary schools, kindergartens, students hostels, children and workers resorts and libraries. The Serbian government considers the colonisation of Kosova by Serbs and expulsion of the Albanians as an urgent national action. This colonisation by force is considered by the Albanians as an action on purpose of forcing them to emigrate and turning Kosova into a clean Serbian land, namely, the consider it as an act of genocide.
The government in Belgrade approved a Decision on 15 November, 1994, by which the return of Albanian refugees that have sought asylum in western Europe is conditioned by financial compensation (as if for their registration). Serbia has planned to re-colonise Kosova by Serbs and Montenegrins with those funds.
To return Albanian refugees from Europe to Kosova, western countries should work out an agreement with the legitimate representatives of the Albanians and not with the Serbian occupiers of Kosova.
Serbia and the so-called Yugoslavia have made their efforts to re-colonise Kosova in a classic way and force the Albanians to emigrate from their ethnic land. To have a clear picture of what the occupier has done to colonise Kosova, evidence of the places where houses, flats and whole colonies have been erected in different communes for Serbian colonists are provided below.
7. Colonisation of Kosova with Croatian Serbs from 10 to 31 August, 1995
A new action of Serbian regime for recolonisation and serbianisation of Kosova began with the wave of Serbian refugees coming from Croatian Kraina. The recolonisation wave began on 10 August, 1995 and continued further on. The number of Serbian refugees from Croatia, according to Serbian sources, arrived to around 8,000 on 31 August, 1995. However, the data leave the possibility to assert that half of the Belgrade plan for the settlement of 20,000 Serbian colonists from Croatia to Kosova has been fulfilled.
Despite the reactions of Albanian and international state and political subjects, particularly of the USA, the Serbian regime continued with settling the Serbian refugees from Croatia to the territory of Kosova. It brought about 500-700 new Serbian colonists to Kosova during the summer of 1995, settling them even by force in the objects and property of the Albanians. In spite of Serbian pompous propaganda that the action had a humanitarian character, it is clear that the main intention of this action is to change the ethnic structure of the population and to colonise Kosova.
Based on Serbian relying facts, we provide with the number of Serbian colonists settled in some centres of Kosova.
In Prizren 1,280, in Prishtina 2,040, in Peja 1,000, at Istog 667, in Gjilan 500, in Gjakova 420, in Mitrovica 318. In Vushtria, at Suhareka and Zubin Potok 250 colonists were installed. At Shtrpce 232, Leposavic 220, Lipjan 200, Vitia 174, at Kamenica 121, at Zvean and Obiliq 120 each, in Ferizaj and at Rahovec 100 each, at Klina 7, at Kaanik 70, at Gllogoc 6o, at Fush-Kosova 20, at Skenderaj 15, etc.
Serbian state bodies, both earlier and this time too, settled a large number of colonists at Presheva, Bujanoc and Medvegja, as well as in Ulqin, Tivar and at Plava and Gucia, etc. Therefore, they colonised all the Albanian settlements what indicates clearly the political character of this campaign for colonisation of the regains of ethnic Albanians. These colonists are being secured jobs and means for jobs, land, houses and apartments free of charge and on permanent property basis.
The list of Serbian colonists at schools, dormitories, and other institutions and objects in Kosova placed from 10-31 August, 1995.
1. Prishtina 1040 colonists
Elementary School at Milosevo
Middle Medical School
Teaching Training School
Middle School Sh. Gjeovi
Youth Centre Boro and Ramiz
The Parliament of Kosova
Sports Hall 25 May
2. Gjakova 420 colonists
School Hysni Zajmi
Middle Medical School
Students Hostel XH. Doda
Higher Pedagogical School Bajram Curri
Summer Resort Emin Duraku
Offices of AC Ereniku
3. Prizren 1280 colonists
Elementary School at Sredska
School Mati Logoreci
Students Dormitory Xhevdet Doda
Summer Resort at Nashec
4. Ferizaj 100 colonists
School Zenel Hajdini
Sports House Rinia
The Barrack of Tube Factory workers Luboteni
5. Mitrovica 318 colonists
Children Summer Resort
Centre of Handicapped Children
School Meto Bajraktari
Middle School of Engineering
Middle Medical School
Dormitory Xheladin Deda
Police Station at Staritrg
6. Peja 1000 colonists
Special School of the Blinds
Elementary School Asdreni
Elementary School Lidhja e Pezs
Middle School V.P. Shkodrani
Higher Economic Commercial School Dormitory
7. Gjilan 500 colonists
School Thimi Mitko
Dormitory Trajko Peric
The Building of Gosa
8. Suhareka 250 colonists
9. Rahovec 100 colonists
School Mihajl Grameno
Summer Resort at Ura e Fshenjt
10. Istog 667 colonists
11. Lipjan 200 colonists
12. Vushtria 250 colonists
School Centre Muharrem Bekteshi
Barracks of the workers of Kosova Enterprise
13. Shtrpca 232 colonists
Electro-Kosova Resort Place
Tube Factory Resort Place
Animal Farm at Raka
14. Kamenica 121 colonists
School Fan Noli
15. Vitia 174 colonists
Middle Engineering School
Social Work Bureau
Enterprise Morava e Eprme
16. Kaanik 70 colonists
School Vllazria - Old Kaanik
17. Klina 7 colonists
Summer Resort Mirusha
Agricultural. Co-operative Hullia
18. Fush Kosova 20 colonists
School Mihajl Grameno
School S. Riza
School Vllezrit Frashri,
at Miradie e Eprme
19. Gllogoc 60 colonists
Former Building of the Commune
and Party Committee
20. Zubin Potok 250 colonists
21. Leposavic 220 colonists
22. Obiliq 120 colonists
23. Zvean 120 colonists
24. Skenderaj 15 colonists
Middle School Ramiz Sadiku
Culture House Hasan Prishtina
25. Podujeva 15 colonists
Middle Engineering School
Total 7,549 colonists
5 kindergartens and summer resorts
12 elementary schools
16 middle schools
9 pupils and students dormitories and hostels
1 higher school
42 other objects (buildings)
This list does not include the colonists that were settled in private and social houses and apartments at villages and in the cities in Kosova.
1. Dr Esat Stavileci, Rrnimi i Autonomis s Kosovs (Destruction of Kosova Autonomy), Prishtina, 1992, p. 43.
3. Adil Fetahu, Masat e prkohshme akt i shkatrrimit t ndrmarrjeve ekonomike dhe institucioneve shoqrore t Kosovs (Temporary Measure, an Act of Destruction of Economic Enterprises and Social Institutions in Kosova), Prishtina, 1992.
4. ICK, Material of Kosova Government, Prishtina, 1992.
5. Acad. Mark Krasniqi, Kosova sot (Kosova Today), Prishtina, 1992.
6. Documents from the Archives of the President of the Republic of Kosova.
7. Dr Esat Stavileci, Largimi nga puna i puntorve shqiptar (Dismissal of Albanian Workers from Work), Prparimi', 1991, p. 52.
8. Dr Rifat Blaku, Shkaqet e eksodit shqiptar, shprngulja e shiptarve gjat shekujve (The Reasons for the Albanian Exodus, Emigration of Albanians during Centuries), Prishtina, 1992, p. 203.
9. Report of The Kosova Council of Human Rights and Liberties given to a delegation of Switzerland, January, 1995, Prishtina.
10. Report of the Charity Organisation Mother Tereza', January, 1995.
11. As in note 9.
12. Information of the Sector of Emigration of LDK, Prishtina, 1995.
13. A Brief report on the Situation in Kosova Education, 7 May, 1993, Prishtina.
14. Dr Tefik Basha, Aspekte bashkkohore demografike t eksodit t shqiptarve nga trojet e tyre (Contemporary Demographic Aspects of the Exodus of Albanians from Their Land), Bota shqiptare', No. 1, Tirana, 1992.
15. As in note 13.
16. Nacertanija - 1844, Delo', Belgrade, 1906.